British Museum Opened (1795)

A 1937 George Gershwin hit song starts this way:  “A foggy day in London town, had me low, had me down; I viewed the morning with alarm, the British Museum had lost its charm.”  Perhaps the museum lost its charm for Gershwin, but the rest of the world remains enchanted.  The museum opened to the public on January 15, 1759 and amazes nearly 7 million people every year.

The British Museum was the first national museum in the world.  It was founded in 1753, when the will of Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), a successful London doctor, bequeathed his collection to the British people (in exchange, actually for 20,000 British pounds).  He had begun collecting while traveling as the personal physician to the governor of Jamaica.  His main interest was natural history, and he brought back 800 species of plants and animals, many alive, from that voyage.

Bust of Sir Hans Sloane, British Museum

He never stopped collecting.  He also acquired collections of others, accumulating more than 71,000 objects, mostly natural history, during his life (the Enlightenment Gallery at the museum represents the way an 18th Century museum looked, with an overwhelming preponderance of natural specimens displayed as objects of curiosity).  His library exceeded 50,000 volumes.  His collections filled up his house in the Bloomsbury district of London, across the street from the current site of the library, and then the house next door.  He eventually had to move to the Chelsea district to find a home with sufficient space (his home was on the square that now bears his name).

Display of mollusk shells, British Museum

From the beginning, the museum was free and open to the public, a service to “all studious and curious Persons.” Its doors have remained open since then, except during the two world wars in the 20th Century. About 5,000 people visited the museum in 1759; nearly 7 million now visit each year, making it the most popular attraction in the United Kingdom.

But that tells just part of the story.  As the museum became more and more popular in the late 1800s, and as the collections continued to grow and diversify, the facilities became overly crowded.  Consequently, a new building was constructed in the South Kensington district of London to house the natural history collections.  That building opened in the 1880s, splitting the attendance between the sites.  Now run as the independent Natural History Museum (read more), it attracted about 4.6 million visits in 2016.   The British Library, which was part of the museum until 1973, also attracts more than 1 million visitors annually.  In all, then, nearly 13 million people visit the British Museum and its offspring every year.

The British Museum itself is now primarily a cultural and archeological museum, known for outstanding exhibits including the Rosetta Stone and the Parthenon friezes.  But its role as the conservator of the natural history of the world during the age of exploration helped shape our understanding of natural selection, evolution, biodiversity, ecology and conservation.  It will never lose its charm.

References:

British Museum.  The Museum’s story—General History.  Available at:  http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/the_museums_story/general_history/sir_hans_sloane.aspx.  Accessed January 15, 2018

This Month in Conservation

August 1
Hawaii National Park Created (1916)
August 2
White Giraffes Found in Kenya (2017)
August 3
Arbor Day in Niger
August 4
Liang Congjie, Pioneering Chinese Environmentalist, born (1932)
August 5
First Traffic Light Installed in U.S. (1914)
August 6
Rajendra Singh, the Waterman of India, Born (1959)
August 7
Elinor Ostrom, Noble Laureate in Economics, Born (1933)
August 8
Banqiao Dam Collapse, World’s Biggest Dam Disaster (1975)
August 9
Smokey Bear Born (1944)
August 10
John Kirk Townsend, Pioneering Naturalist, Born (1809)
August 11
Gifford Pinchot, Father of American Forestry, Born (1865)
August 12
“The Lorax” Published (1971)
August 13
Roald Amundsen Completes Northwest Passage (1905-1906)
August 14
Hetch Hetchy Began Producing Power (1925)
August 15
Sponge Act passed (1914)
August 16
E. F. Schumacher, Environmental Economist, born (1911)
August 17
Cape Hatteras National Seashore created (1937)
August 18
Margaret Murie born (1902)
August 19
Cickamauga and Chattanooga Battlefield established
August 20
The Great Fire (1910)
August 21
“Bambi” Released (1942)
August 22
Loch Ness Monster first seen (565)
August 23
Chile’s Atacama Desert Blooms (2017)
August 24
Katahdin Woods and Waters National Monument, Maine, Established (2016)
August 25
National Park Service Born (1916)
August 26
Krakatau Volcano Erupted (1883)
August 27
First Oil Well Drilled (1859)
August 28
Roger Tory Peterson, Ornithologist, Born (1908)
August 29
Henry Bergh, Founder of ASPCA, Born (1813)
August 30
Lord Walsingham Shot 1,070 Grouse (1888)
August 31
John Muir Home preserved (1964)
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